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Substations that generate electricity are able to satisfy the rapidly expanding electrical power demand that is occurring at the present time. There are several distinct varieties of substations used to generate electrical power, including hydroelectric, atomic, as well as thermal. Substations are developed in various parts of the country concerning resource availability; nevertheless, these substations may not be located in areas that are physically closer to load centres. The load centre has the capability of determining the real power utilisation. Therefore, transferring the power to the various load centre sites from the substation is necessary. Therefore, this function requires transmission networks that are both high in capacity and very long in length.

Although the cost of generating power at a low voltage level is quite high, the cost of supplying power at a high voltage level is relatively low. In order to maintain the low as well as high voltage levels, it is necessary to construct a number of switching and transformation stations between the location where the power is generated and the client ends. In most contexts, one would refer to these two stations as electrical substations. This article will go over the various substations that are available.


An electrical system that has the capacity to handle high voltage and can be used to control things like electrical circuits, electrical generators, and other similar devices is referred to as a Substation. The primary function of the substations is to transform alternating current (AC) into direct current (DC) (direct current). Other kinds of substations are much larger than typical ones, and they contain a wide variety of machines, transformers, switches, as well as circuit breakers.

Sub Stations Types:

  • Step-up Type Substation:
  • The power source for this kind of substation comes from a production facility that is located nearby. In order to raise the voltage level sufficiently so that it may be sent to more distant sites, a massive power transformer is utilised. A transmission bus connected to transmission lines can be used at the substation to facilitate the transfer of electrical power. This substation has the potential to cause a disruption to the incoming power that is delivered to the power-producing facility. The power that has been obtained can be put to use in order to provide power for the machinery that is operating inside the facility. Circuit breakers are included in a substation's infrastructure and are used to switch the generating as well as the transmission circuits in and out of service as needed.

  • Customer Substation:
  • This particular kind of substation is used by a single commercial customer as their primary source of electrical power supply. The requirements of the business case, in addition to the requirements of the technical, highly rely on the need of the clients.

  • System Stations:
  • This particular substation is known as a system station because it facilitates an extensive quantity of power transfer throughout the station. These stations alone provide no power transformers, whereas other stations also perform voltage exchange. Typically, these stations provide electricity for the circuits that feed transformer stations as well as the endpoints for the transmission lines that are generated by switchyards. Additionally, they supply the endpoints for the transmission lines. They are essential for maintaining coherence in the long run. These stations provide highly important strategic services, but their construction and ongoing upkeep are very expensive.

  • Distribution Type Substation:
  • Substations of the distribution type are installed at points along distribution networks at which voltage distribution needs to be stepped down in order to supply the right voltage to consumers. Distribution networks are also known as power distribution networks. The voltage between any phase and the neutral will be 230 volts, whereas the voltage between any phase and any other phase will be 400 volts.

  • Step-down Type Substation:
  • This particular kind of substation can be found in a variety of locations throughout an electrical network. They, being a prime source of distribution lines, can connect various components of the network. The transmission voltage can be changed to the voltage of sub-transmission by using this type of substation (69kV). The converted voltage lines have the potential to serve as a supply for distribution substations. In some instances, power is drawn from a transmission line so that it can be used in various industries concerning their needs along the route.

  • Underground Distribution Substation:
  • The substation installation in an urban centre calls for a significant amount of space; yet, in most cases, they do not have any available land for the installation. In order to solve this issue, putting the substation underground would reduce the amount of space that is required, and the surface area will be available for use in other development projects, such as the construction of buildings, retail malls, and other similar projects. The primary objective of this substation is to provide the same level of service as that provided by a conventional substation while simultaneously minimising the amount of space required above ground.

  • Switchyard:
  • The switchyard acts as a negotiator between the generation and the transmission of electricity, and it is also capable of maintaining an equivalent voltage throughout the facility. The primary objective of this is to deliver, via the adjacent power grid, the electrical power that has been created at the power plant at a specific voltage level.

  • 11kv Substation:
  • The 11kv substation's primary function is to collect the high-voltage electricity that is being sent from the producing station. It subsequently lowers the voltage to an appropriate value for local distribution and provides amenities for switching. This particular substation is equipped with a circuit breaker, a capacitor bank, an isolator, a lightning arrester, and a step-down transformer. CT metering is also included.

  • 220 kV Substation:
  • In this case, the power capability utilised by the substation’s step-down transformer is 220kVA, and it exemplifies the maximum apparent power that can be provided by a step-down transformer. This substation will have a receiving voltage level of 220kV at its disposal.

  • 132 kV Substation:
  • The step-down transformer’s rating is 132 kilovolts, and the primary voltage of the transformer is also 132 kilovolts. In most cases, these transformers are used in transmission-type substations, which are located in areas where the voltage must be stepped down in order to reach more distribution.

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